Jewish-Languages Mailing List

October 2001

Date: Mon, 01 Oct 2001 14:23
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @>
Subject: Re: 3 questions: Yiddish, Solitreo, Hebrew in America

Mo'adim le-Simha to all.

The Mailing address (in Hebrew) and e-mail link to contact the Israeli
National Authority for Yiddish may be found at the following link:

Unfortunately, the site is designed in Shockwave, so the plugins (Flash,
available from, free download) are needed to view the
site. Most of it is still under construction.

Best regards,

Seth Jerchower
Public Services Librarian
Center for Judaic Studies
University of Pennsylvania
420 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203
Fax: (215) 238-1540
sethj @
" Proverai tua ventura
fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace.
Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura?
I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Wednesday, 03 Oct 2001 18:03
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: Aramaic-Hebrew character set re ISO10646 / Unicode (fwd)

This is a message from:

Elaine Keown
San Jose, CA
408 947 7779


I enclose a list of the Aramaic-Hebrew character set. The list is mostly
"square script" except for the epigraphic and Samaritan sections. It was
compiled during two years of research to improve the coverage of languages
written in Hebrew in international computer standards. I collaborated
with Dr. Seth Jerchower, a scholar of Judeo-Romance, and also with an
Aramaist, Prof. Paul Flesher.

I am sending the list to e-discussion groups to begin public review.
Public review is a requirement for international computer standards work.
However, I am also sure that the list is incomplete in several sections.

In probably 18 months a technical proposal will be written to either the
ISO's JTC1/SC2 technical committee (Switzerland) or The Unicode Consortium
(Mountain View, California) with an improved version of this list.

Forty-five percent of this list (from SECTION A and from Yiddish and
Ladino) is already in 10646/ Unicode, the most widely used international
computer standard. When Unicode and ISO process the proposal and accept
whichever subset of the remaining list they like (probably 80-90%), then
these symbols will be added to ISO 10646/Unicode. Then these symbols can
be used much more easily in Web pages, may be supported by font makers,
and might even be supported by large software manufacturers.

Thank you,
Elaine Keown
NOTE: footnote numbers are in ( ).


Complete Net
symbol count(1) count(2)

SECTION A.. Ancient or
common symbols
1. Most ancient 22-letter alphabet 22 22
2. Ancient epigraphic symbols(3) 12 12
3. Ezra's points (4) 2 2
4. Medial letters 5 5
5. Tiberian pointing and other 53 52
masoretic apparatus
6. Other Hebrew ms symbols(5) 7 7
Net subset totals 100

SECTION B. Variant letters for regional Jewish
languages written in square script(6)
7. Arabic(7) 6 4
8. Berber(8) 1 0
9. Persian(9) 3 0
10. Tajik(10) (Bukhari) 4 2
11. Tat(11) 3 2
12. Krimchak(12) 3 1
13. Neo-Aramaic(13,14) (Kurdit) 3 1
14. Greek(15) 3 1
15. French(16) 7 3
16. Shuadit(17), Comtadin(18) 1 0
17. Italian(19) 6 1
18. Ladino(20) 4 2
19. Yiddish(21) 6 3
Net subset totals 20

SECTION C. Other pointing, reading, masoretic systems
20. Babylonian(22) 39 35
21. Palestinian(23) 31 18
22. Samaritan(24) 21 12
Net subset totals 65

SECTION D. Rare or unique symbols
23. Palmyrene dotted resh(25) 1 1
24. Bodleian Hebrew e63, fol. 106r- 2 1
25. Cairo Codex(27) 1 1
Net subset totals 2

Total Aramaic-Hebrew symbols found to date: 188

1. This number includes the complete set of extra symbols found in the
2. This number is the net number of symbols after subtracting those
found in more than one category.
3. Y. AHARONI, Arad Inscriptions, Jerusalem, 1986, p. 34. This count
includes the ten widely used numerals, originally from Demotic Egyptian,
found in Hebrew, Aramaic, Judeo-Persian, Nabataean, etc. epigraphy,
ostraca, bullae, and other materials. For an excellent presentation,
see G. IFRAH, The universal history of numbers: from prehistory to the
invention of the computer, New York, 2000, pp. 236-237. See also R.
DEUTSCH, New epigraphic evidence from the Biblical period, Tel Aviv,
1995. For their use in Aramaic edicts of Aíoka, see G. Pugliese
CARRATELLI and G. GARBINI, A bilingual Graeco-Aramaic edict by Aíoka,
Roma, 1969, p. 43.
4. These two very old points, an upper middle and a lower middle dot,
occur in Qumran texts and are found in Torah scrolls. Aboth de R.
Nathan calls them Ezra's points. Later European literature calls them
"puncta extraordinaria." See Aaron DOTAN, "Masorah," Encyclopaedia
Judaica, Jerusalem, 1971, col. 1408. See R. BUTIN, The ten nequdoth of
the Torah, New York, 1969, p. XXV, 23.
5. Here I include inverted nuns, pehs, and tsadis plus the two
abbreviation symbols ( and ).
6. This list of languages written in Hebrew is not yet complete: it
does not include several central Iranian Jewish dialects (Kashani,
Isfahani, Yazdi, and Kermani), Maltese in Hebrew, Genizah Latin in
Hebrew, or Portuguese in Hebrew.
7. Benjamin HARY, "Adaptations of Hebrew script," in Peter T. DANIELS,
The World's Writing Systems, Oxford, 1995, pp. 727-734. Judeo-Arabic
texts were apparently first computerized at Dropsie by Prof. Lawrence
V. Berman. Later in the 1970s Prof. Alan Corré produced a computerized
8. P. GALAND-PERNET, Une version berbère de la haggadah de Pesach,
Paris, 1970. See also M. O'CONNOR, "The Berber scripts," in DANIELS,
cited above, p. 115.
9. Judeo-Persian, Bukhari, and Tat are dialects of Persian from
different areas. See Herbert PAPER, A Judeo-Persian Pentateuch,
Jerusalem, 1972, p. for the alphabet.
10. Nissim TAGGER, Milon Ivri-Bukhari, Tel Aviv, 1960, passim.
11. Harald HAARMAN, "Yiddish and the other Jewish languages in the
Soviet Union," in J. FISHMAN, ed., Readings in the Sociology of
Jewish languages, Leiden, 1985, p. 165.
12. Krimchak, a Kipchak Turkic language, also called Judeo-Crimean
Tatar, is one of at least three Turkic Rabbanite or Karaite languages
(the others are Karaim and Khazar). For Krimchak symbols, see I.
IANBAY and M. ERDAL, The Krimchak Translation of the Book of Ruth,
Mediterranean Language Review, 10, 1998, pp. 1-53. See also W.
MOSKOVITZ, "Krimchak Language," Encyclopaedia Judaica Yearbook 1988/9,
Jerusalem, 1989, p. 371.
13. The languages called "Kurdit" in Modern Hebrew are actually
Neo-Aramaic dialects, originally from Kurdistan and other regions. See
I. AVINERY, The Aramaic dialect of the Jews of Zakho, Jerusalem, 1988,
p. v.
14. For symbols, see Yona SABAR, Targum de-Targum: an old Neo-Aramaic
version of the Targum on Song of Songs, Wiesbaden, p. 9.
15. For some symbols, see Nicholas DE LANGE, Greek Jewish Texts from
the Cairo Genizah, Tubingen, 1996, pp. 5-79.
16. Menachem BANITT, The glossaire de Bâle. Texte. Académie Nationale
des Sciences et des Lettres d'Israël, Jerusalem, 1972, pp. ix, x.
17. For Shuadit symbols, see Susan SILBERSTEIN, The Provencal Esther
Poem Written in Hebrew Characters c. 1327 by Crescas de Caylar:
Critical Edition. Dissertation, 1973, University of Pennsylvania, pp.
18. For symbols of Comtadin, see E. SABATIER, Chansons
Hébraïco-Provençales des Juifs Comtadins, Paris, 1927, pp. 11-12.
19. Alan FREEDMAN, Italian texts in Hebrew characters: problems of
interpretation, Wiesbaden, 1972, p. 123.
20. B. HARY, "Judeo-Spanish (Ladino)," in DANIELS, cited above, p. 734.
21. Howard ARONSON, "Yiddish," in DANIELS, pp. 735-742.
22. Paul KAHLE, Der Masoretische Text des Alten Testaments nach der
Überlieferung des Babylonischen Juden, Leipzig, 1902, pp. 24, 34, 46-47.
23. Manfried DIETRICH, Neue palästinisch punktierte Bibelfragmente:
Veröffentlich und auf Text und Punktation hin untersucht, Leiden, 1968,
p. 88* [Tafel II]. This count does not include variant Palestinian
marks such as found in Genizah materials.
24. Rudolf MACUCH, Grammatik des Samaritanischen Hebräisch, Berlin,
1969, pp. 61-76.
25. Hillers, Delbert R. and Eleonora Cussini, Palmyrene Aramaic Texts.
Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 1996, pp. 23, 31, 33, 55.
26. Ugo MARAZZI, Tevarihi Ali Osman: cronaca anonima ottamana in
trascrizione ebraica, Napoli, 1980.
27. MarÍa Josefa de AZCARRAGA-SERVERT, "El ketib/qere en el libro de
Josue del Codice de Profetas de El Cairo," Proceedings of the Eleventh
Congress of the International Organization for Masoretic Studies (IOMS),
Jerusalem, 1994, p. 7.

Date: Fri, 19 Oct 2001 13:25
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @>

Dear fellow listers,

I suspect that a virus is multiplying itself through one of our members.

If anyone receives a message from miryamsh @ with the attachment
"", do not open it, as it contains a worm virus.

I will notify Miryam that her computer is infected.

Kol tuv,


Seth Jerchower
Public Services Librarian
Center for Judaic Studies
University of Pennsylvania
420 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203
Fax: (215) 238-1540
sethj @
" Proverai tua ventura
fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace.
Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura?
I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Tue, 23 Oct 2001 21:30
From: Mark Williamson <aaaboyz1 @>
Subject: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists)

First of all, I have a list of Jewish languages that I have compiled from
various sources, and was wondering if anybody has anything to add to it.
(more languages, alternative names)

(Judeo-Arabic languages listed under their dialect name, or another
identifying name)
Bukharic (Judeo-Tajik, Bokharic, Bukharian, Bokharan, Bukharan)
Catalanic (Judeo-Catalan)
Dzhidi (Judeo-Persian, Judeo-Farsi)
Hebrew [ancient, modern]
Hulaul (Judeo-Aramaic, Lishana Noshan, Lishana Axni, Jabali, Kurdit,
Galiglu, 'aramit, (ARAMIT, Hula Hula) Judeo-Berber (alternate names?)

Date: Tue, 23 Oct 2001 23:29
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @>
Subject: Re: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists)

Judeo-Italian is called "Lason Akodesh" in Turin, "Ghettaiolo" in Ferrara,
and "Bagito" in Leghorn.

Judeo-Provencal has been called "Shuadit," also spelled "Chouadit,"
"Chuadit," or "Chouadite.

George Jochnowitz

Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 01:36
From: Mark Williamson <aaaboyz1 @>
Subject: Sorry!

Assuming you all saw my last message, I'd like to finish it (my Hotmail sent
accidentally, and I was not finished).
So here it is:

First of all, I have a list of Jewish languages that I have compiled from
various sources, and was wondering if anybody has anything to add to it.
Also, I have added the responses recieved while finishing the list (to
resend it in full)
(more languages, alternative names)

Arvit (Judeo-Arabic) [Judeo-Morrocan Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian Arabic,
Judeo-Yemeni Arabic (Judeo-Yemeni, Yemenite Judeo-Arabic), Yahudic (Iraqi
Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Arabi), Yudi (Tripolitanian
Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Tripolitanian Arabic, Tripolita'it)
Bik (Judeo-Tat, Judeo-Tatik, Jewish Tat, Dzhuhuric, Juwri, Juhuri)
Bukharic (Judeo-Tajik, Bokharic, Bukharian, Bokharan, Bukharan)
Catalanic (Judeo-Catalan)
Dzhidi (Judeo-Persian, Judeo-Farsi)
Gruzinic (Judeo-Georgian)
Hebrew [ancient, modern]
Hulaul (Judeo-Aramaic, Lishana Noshan, Lishana Axni, Jabali, Kurdit,
Galiglu, 'aramit, `aramit, Hula Hula)
Italkian (Judeo-Italian, Lason Akodesh, Ghettaiolo, Bagito)
Judeo-Berber (alternate names?)
Knaanic (Judeo-Czech, Judeo-Slavic, Canaanic, Leshon Knaan
Krimchak (Judeo-Crimean Tatar, Judeo-Turkish)
Ladino (Judeo-Spanish, Judezmo, Dzhudezmo, Safardi, Spanyol, Haquetiya,
Dzudezmo, Dzudio)
Lish n Didn (Lishan n, Lishanid Nash Didn, Persian Azerbaijan Jewish
Aramaic, Lakhlokhi, Galihalu)
Lishana Deni (Judeo-Aramaic, Lishan Hudaye, Lishan Hozaye, Kurdit)
Lishanid Noshan (Arbili Neo-Aramaic, Lishana Did n, Hulani, Kurdit,
Galigalu, Jbeli, Hula'ula)
Shuadit (Judeo-Provinal, Judeo-Comtadine, Chouadit, Chuadit, Chouadite,
Yevanic (Judeo-Greek, Yevanitika, Romaniot)
Yiddish (Judeo-German)
Zarphatic (Judeo-French)

OK, my next question is: Are there any existing dictionaries or dictionaries
being written for Jewish languages other than Hebrew, Yiddish, and Ladino? I
do know that some of these are extinct (some extinct are used for liturgical
purposes), such as Knaanic.


Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 07:26
From: Benjamin H. Hary <bhary @>
Subject: Re: Sorry!

aaaboyz1 @ writes:
> Are there any existing dictionaries or dictionaries
> being written for Jewish languages other than Hebrew, Yiddish, and
> Ladino?

Joshua Blau is finishing an extensive dictionary of Medieval Judeo-Arabic.
 There are some other attempts at dictionaries or word lists for later
Judeo-Arabic periods, including one of mine on later Egyptian JA.

Benjamin Hary, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Hebrew, Arabic and Linguistics
AT Tel Aviv University for Fall 2001:
50 Dizengoff Street, Apt 1906
IL-64332 Tel Aviv, Israel
Tel/Fax: 011-972-3-528-0423; Mobile: 011-972-55-905636

CoSIH: The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew:

Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 05:13
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <tsuguya @>
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

Mark Williamson wrote:

> Are there any existing dictionaries or dictionaries being written for
> Jewish languages other than Hebrew, Yiddish, and Ladino?

I would like to remind you that in addition to dictionaries of
individual Jewish languagues, there is also a very important project
to compile a synoptic dictionary of the Hebrew and Aramaic
component in the Jewish languages of the Mediterranean basin
and the Middle East, initiated by our teacher Prof. Shelomo Morag z"l
at the Jewish Oral Traditions Research Center in Jerusalem:

Tsuguya Sasaki
tsuguya @

Date: Wednesday, 24 Oct 2001 16:56
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: names for languages

A useful article for you is Leonard Prager's "A Preliminary Checklist of
English Names of Jewish Lects." It's in Jewish Language Review 6, 1986.
This journal was edited by David Gold and Leonard Prager and published in
Haifa from 1981-1987 by the Association for the Study of Jewish Languages,
which no longer exists.

The article spends 10 pages listing names of languages and determining
whether they are recommended or rejected. For example, he recommends
Judezmo, Yiddish, Ancient Jewish Greek, Shuadit, Zarfatic, Jewish English,
and Jidi, but he rejects Targumic, Marathic, Western Loez, and all the
Judeo-X names. He explains the logic of his choices and gives references
for the originators of glottonyms, where he can. It seems that he uses
"Jewish X" to refer to "the Jewish correlate of (Modern) X, insofar as it
differs from that of non-Jews." I don't agree with all his choices (as you
can see from all the Judeo-X names on our website), but I certainly
appreciate that he put this list together.

I highly recommend that anyone interested in Jewish languages check out
this journal.

-Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 11:40
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @>
Subject: Fwd: Re: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists)

> Date: Tue, 23 Oct 2001 20:19:34 -0700
> From: Yona Sabar sabar @
> Subject: Re: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists)
> Cc:
> Bcc:
> X-Attachments:
> Re Hulaula, etc. - just use Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects (because
> there is also Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects) - and this is the name
> used by all the scholars at present. The other names you mention
> are either totally wrong (e.g. Kurdit) or just folkloric identifier,
> e.g., Galli-Gallox (!) meaning "with me-with you", that is to say
> that the speakers use this preposition, whereas in another dialect
> they use immi-immox, etc. Compare British spelling "colour" vs. our
> American "color". Shall we call the British English "the U English"??

Yona Sabar

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 14:13
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: suggestion from Bernard Spolsky

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 08:38:02 +0200
From: Bernard Spolsky spolsb @

It would be very useful if someone put together and posted somewhere an
updated list, not attempting to make judgments as to what is the "correct"
name or even as to the existence of the variety, but simply with citations
of use.
Bernard Spolsky

Date: Thursday, 25 Oct 2001 14:11
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @>
Subject: Dictionaries

Scholarly glossaries and dictionaries for Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialects:

Good glossaries in books by:
1) Irene Garbell, the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialects of Persian Azerbaijan
(The Hague, 1965);
2) Geoffrey Khan, . A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic, The Dialect of the Jews of
Arbel, Leiden, 1999.;
3) Hezi Mutzafi, The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Koy Sanjaq (Iraqi
Kurdistan), Phonology, Morphology, Text, and Glossary, Ph. D. Thesis,
Tel-Aviv University, 2000;
4) Yona Sabar, A Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dictionary, (BASED ON OLD AND NEW

There are also two non-scholarly dictionaries (in Hebrew):

1) Shilo, V., 1995, Milon `Ivri-Arami-Ashuri be-lahag Yehude Zakho
[= Hebrew Neo-Aramaic:Zakho], Jerusalem.
2) Yona, M., 1999. Milon Arami-Kurdi-`Ivri [=Kurdish Aramaic-Hebrew
Dictionary, i.e., Jewish Neo-Aramaic of Zakho], Jerusalem.

Yona Sabar

P.S. The next list should be about grammar books for Jewish languages.

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 16:02
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @>
Subject: More Dictionaries

Dear Fellow Listers,

I am forwarding a few references for Judeo-Italian and Judeo-French
lexicography; while not complete, it should give a reasonable idea of works
dealing with the topic. Note that not all works are dedicated exclusively
to lexicography, but contain useful glossaries or other wordlists.

Best to all,

Wexler, Paul
Judeo-Romance linguistics : a bibliography (Latin, Italo-, Gallo, Ibero-,
and Rhaeto-Romance except Castilian). New York : Garland Pub., 1989.
Garland reference library of the humanities ; vol. 890

Banitt, Menahem
-Le glossaire de Bâle [Sefer ha-pitronot mi-Bazel]. Jérusalem, Académie
nationale des sciences et des lettres d'Israël, 1972.
Corpus glossariorum Biblicorum Hebraico-Gallicorum Medii Aevi, tomus 1.
-Le glossaire de Leipzig. Jérusalem : Académie nationale des sciences et
des lettres
d'Israël, c1995-
Corpus glossariorum Biblicorum Hebraico-Gallicorum Medii Aevi ; tomus 2

Blondheim, David S.
-Essai d'un vocabulaire comperatif des parlers Romans des juifs au moyen
age, in Romania, vol.49, pp.1-43, 344-388, 527-569, Paris, 1923.

Levy, Raphael
-Contribution à la lexicographie française selon d'anciens textes d'origine
juive. Syracuse University Press, 1960.
-Recherches lexicographiques sur d'anciens textes français d'origine juive.
Baltimore, Md., The Johns Hopkins Press; Paris, Société d'édition "Les
Belles-lettres"; 1932.
-Trésor de la langue des juifs français au moyen âge. Austin : University
of Texas Press, 1964.

Massariello Merzagora, Giovanna
-Giudeo-italiano : dialetti italiani parlati dagli Ebrei d'Italia. Pisa :
Pacini, 1977.
Profilo dei dialetti italiani. 23
Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Centro di studio per la dialettologia
italiana 5.

Colorni, Vittore
-La parlata degli ebrei Mantuani, in: Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 37,
1971, (Scritti in memoria di A. Milan), pp. 109-64.

Cuomo, Luisa
-Una traduzione giudeo-Romanesca del libro di Giona, Beihefte zur
Zeitschrift fur Romanische Philologie, Band 215, Max Niemeyer Verlag,
Tubingen 1988.
-Le glosse volgari nell'"Arukh" di R. Natan ben Yehi'el da Roma;
interferenze lessicali e semantiche. Italia 13-15 (2001) 25-52.
-Le glosse volgari nell'"Arukh" di R. Natan ben Yehi'el da Roma. Medioevo
Romanzo 22,2 (1998) 232-283.

De Benedetti-Stow, Sandra
Romano, Judah ben Moses ben Daniel, 14th cent.
-La chiarificazione in volgare delle espressioni difficili ricorrenti nel
Misnèh Toràh di Mosé Maimonide. Centro ricerche e studi delle testimonianze
medievali e moderne del giudaismo italiano , Roma : Carucci editore,1990

Del Monte, Crescenzo
-Sonetti postumi giudaico-romaneschi e romaneschi; Glossario dei vocaboli e
delle espressioni di origine ebraica nel dialetto giudaico-romanesco di
Attilio Milano. Prefazione di Benvenuto Terracini. Casa Editrice "Israel",

Dibber Tob, Venice, 1588

Fiorentino, Giuliana
-Note lessicali al Maqré Dardeqé, in: AGI, 29, 1937, pp.138-59.
-Il Maqré Dardeqé e alcune questioni generali sullo studio delle parlate
giudeo-italiane (English translation in: Jewish Quarterly Review 42,
1951-52, pp.57-77).

Fortis, Umberto, Paolo Zolli
-La parlata giudeo-veneziana Assisi ; Roma : B. Carucci, 1979.

Maqré Dardeqé , Naples 1488

Meyer-Modena, M.L., Massariello-Merzagora, G.,
-Il giudeo-Modenese nei testi raccolti da R..Giacomelli, in: Rendiconti
dell'Istituto Lombardo, Accademia di Scienze e Lettere, Classe di Lettere
107, 1973, pp.863-938.

Rieti, Moses da
-Mosé da Rieti: Filosofia naturale e Fatti de Dio (ed. I. Hijmans-Tromp),
Leiden 1989.

Sermoneta, Giuseppe (Joseph)
-Il Libro delle forme verbali, compendio vogare del Mahala`kh Sevile'
ha-da'ath di M.R.J. Qimchi, in: Scritti in memoria di L.Carpi, Jerusalem
1967, pp.1-29.
-Un glossario filosofico ebraico italiano del XIII secolo, Rome 1969.

Terracini, Benvenuto
-Residui di parlate giudeo-italiane raccolti a Pitigliano, Roma e Ferrara,
in: Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 13, 1951, pp.1-11,63-72, 113-21.
-Le parlate giudaico-italiane negli appunti di R. Giacomelli, in: Rassegna
Mensile di Israel, 28, 1962 (Volume in memoria di F. Luzzatto), pp. 260-95.

For manuscript and early printed glossaries relative to the Bible, see:
Cassuto, Umberto
Bibliografia delle traduzioni giudeo-italiane della Bibbia, in:
Festschrift zum siebziegsten Geburstage Armand Kaminska, Vienna, 1937,

Seth Jerchower
Public Services Librarian
Center for Judaic Studies
University of Pennsylvania
420 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203
Fax: (215) 238-1540
sethj @
" Proverai tua ventura
fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace.
Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura?
I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 19:07
From: David Grossman <davidg @>
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

Can we also have references to on-line Aramaic dictionaries? I have
been looking for a long time, but I haven't found any.

David Grossman

Date: Thu, Oct 25, 2001 20:03
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @>
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

The only "on-line" dictionary of any type I'm aware of is the COMPREHENSIVE
by Stephen A. Kaufman, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Michael Sokoloff.
Unfortunately, the interface is romanized, but I obtained some results.
I inserted the root dhb and received the following output:

CAL Outline Lexicon: GENERAL dhb

dhb N dhb)
1 passim gold
2 Syr alloy of gold and silver
3 Syr gold coin
4 Syr money
LS2 142
LS2 v: dahbA)
dhb#2 N dhb)
1 Palestinian,Syr goldsmith
LS2 142
LS2 v: dahAbA
R dhb
dhb V
041 Syr to be gilded
031 Syr to gild
LS2 142

It is also possible to search by a number of pre-defined varieties.

You may also wish to visit the Beth Mardutho website
( - distributes Unicode Syriac fonts) and the
The International Organization for
Targumic Studies website (

Kol Tuv,


Seth Jerchower
Public Services Librarian
Center for Judaic Studies
University of Pennsylvania
420 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203
Fax: (215) 238-1540
sethj @
" Proverai tua ventura
fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace.
Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura?
I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Fri, 26 Oct 2001 05:59
From: David Grossman <davidg @>
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

Thank you, Seth.
I've been searching the Web for a very long time for Aramaic on-line
dictionaries, and this is the first set of workable resources that I have
I'm looking forward to the next stage resources: non-Romanized text.
David Grossman

Date: Sat, 27 Oct 2001 14:44
From: David Grossman <davidg @>
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

I assume that you are referring to the language known in Israel as
Maroka'it, and not to Ladino.

Do you know of any relevant on-line dictionaries?

David Grossman

Date: Sun, 28 Oct 2001 10:23
From: Yaakov Bentolila <bentoli @>
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

No, what is known as Maroka'it is Moroccan Judeo-ARABIC. Haketiya is
Moroccan Judeo-SPANISH, a variety of LADINO (a western variety vs the
eastern JUDEZMO), if you agree to call LADINO a vernacular language. As you
know, Prof. Sefiha-Vidal has made the distinction between Ladino, which is a
litterary language, a "mot a mot" traduction from Hebrew texts, and JUDEZMO
(or Judeo-Spanish, or Haketiya, or whatever), which are the spoken
vernacular (or even litterary, but not calques) varieties.

I don't know of any on-line Kaketic dictionnary...

Yaakov Bentolila

Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 09:50
From: David Grossman <davidg @>
Subject: Re: Sorry!

The Hebrew Translating forum, which I moderate, has an extensive listing of
all on-line Hebrew, Yiddish, and other Jewish-oriented Semitic-language
dictionaries. The list is accessible to all subscribers to Hebrew
Translating, and it is is regularly updated by submissions from our

David Grossman

Date: Mon, 29 Oc 2001 06:42
From: David Grossman <davidg @>
Subject: Re: Sorry!

Since posting this message to Jewish-Languages, I've been inundated with
requests for information about the Hebrew Translating Forum.

Information about the Hebrew Translating Forum is available by clicking on
Hebrew Translating at That same
website gives information about other forums in Hebrew and in Hebrew
bilingualism, as well as other topics.

Subscribers to the Hebrew Translating Forum have access to the full and
constantly updated listing of on-line dictionaries, glossaries, and other
linguistic resources. This information was recently enhanced thanks to the
fine and knowledgeable subscribers to our splendid Jewish Languages group.

David Grossman